Statistics

Prevalence

  • 1 in 7 women (14.2%) in Hawai'i has experienced a completed forcible rape during their lives. (Ruggiero, Kilpatrick 2003)
  • Nearly 1 in 5 women (18.3%) in the United States has been raped in her lifetime. This includes forced penetration (completed or attempted) or alcohol/drug facilitated competed penetration (Black, et al. 2011)
  • About 1 in 71 men (1.4%) in the United States have been raped and 1 in 21 (4.8%) men have been made to penetrate someone else in their lifetime. (Black et al., 2011)
  • Nearly 1 in 8 women (12.5%) and 1 in 16 men (6%) report experiencing sexual coercion in the lifetime. This is defined as unwanted sexual penetration that occurs after a person is pressured in a nonphysical way. (Black et al., 2011)
  • Over 40 percent of female victims of completed rape were first rape before the age 18 and more than one-quarter of male victims of completed rape were first raped before the age of 11. (Black et al., 2011)

Perpetrators

  • Over 98 percent (98.1%) of female victims of rape report a male perpetrator. (Black, et al. 2011)
  • Over 93 percent (93.3%) of male victims of rape report a male perpetrator. (Black et al., 2011)
  • About 80 percent (79.2%) of male victims who were made to penetrate someone else or who were sexually coerced into penetrating someone else (83.6%) report a female perpetrator. (Black et al., 2011)
  • Over 90 percent (91.9%) of female victims of rape report being raped by an intimate partner or acquaintance. (Black et al., 2011)
  • More than half of male victims of rape report being raped by an acquaintance and 15 percent by a stranger. (Black et al., 2011)
  • Juveniles are perpetrators of about 40 percent of child sexual assault victimizations. (Snyder 2000)
  • Of all sexual perpetrators known to law enforcement 23 percent are under the age of 18. (Black et al., 2011)

Characteristics of Sexual Assaults

  • About four in ten sexual assaults take place at the victim's own home. Two in ten take place in the home of a friend, neighbor or relative (Greenfeld 1997)
  • Approximately one-third of rapes/sexual assaults occur during the day (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) (Greenfeld 1997)
  • In over 35 percent of sexual assaults, the offender is intoxicated. (Greenfeld 1998)
  • Only 13 percent of sexual assaults involved a weapon. (US Bureau of Justice Statistics 2004)

Impact of Victimization

  • Rape survivors are three times more likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder episodes than individuals who have not been raped, four times more likely to have contemplated suicide and 13 times more likely to have attempted suicide. (Schafran1996).
  • Sexual victimization is associated with severe and enduring behavioral consequences for victims, including increased drug and alcohol use, domestic violence, depression, suicide and teenage pregnancy. (Seymour et al. 1992).
  • Rape had the highest annual victim cost at $127 billion per year, followed by assault, murder and drunken driving. (US Bureau of Justice Statistics 2000)

At Risk Populations

Children & Teens

  • While child sexual abuse statistics vary, most research studies show between 17% and 25 percent of girls and between 5 percent and 16 percent of boys will experience sexual abuse before age 18. (CDC 2009; Felitti 1998)
  • Of all sexual assault victimizations reported to law enforcement agencies, 67 percent of victims were under 18 years of age, 34 percent were under 12 and 14 percent were six years old or younger. (Snyder 2000).
  • Over 90 percent of juvenile sexual assault victims reported knowing their attacker: 34 percent were family members and 59 percent acquaintances. Only seven percent of the perpetrators were strangers to the victim. (Snyder, 2000)
  • Juveniles are perpetrators of about 40 percent of child sexual assault victimizations. (Desai et al., 2002; Noll et al., 2003)
  • Women who reported they were raped before the age of 18 were three to five times more likely to experience subsequent adult victimization than those who had not been raped. (Desai et al 2002; Noll et al. 2003)
  • Childhood or adolescent sexual abuse is associated with a range of high-risk sexual behaviors, including the likelihood of being battered; trading sex for drugs, shelter, or money; entry into prostitution; and less likelihood to use birth control. (Boyer and Fine 1992, Finkelhor 1987, Paone et al. 1992, Zierler et al. 1991)
  • Teens 16 to 19 years old are three and a half times more likely than the general population to be victims of rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault. (Rennison 2000)
  • Female students who have been physically and/or sexually abused by a dating partner in the 9th grade through 12th grade are at increased risk for substance abuse, unhealthy weight gain, risky sexual behavior, pregnancy and suicide. (Silverman, Raj, Mucci, Hathaway 2001)

College Students

  • Among college students nationwide, 20 percent to 25 percent of women reported experiencing completed or attempted rape. (Fisher, Cullen, Turner 2000)
  • Of surveyed college women, about 90 percent of rape and sexual assault victims knew their attacker prior to the assault. (Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000)
  • Among female undergraduates at the University of Hawaii-Manoa, approximately 10 percent report experiencing sexual assault, 2 percent report being raped, 11 percent report experiencing partner violence, and over 10 percent report experiencing being stalked since starting school. (Bopp, 2003)

Disabled

  • Women with disabilities are at least twice as likely to be raped and abused as the general population of women. (Sobsey 1994)
  • Among adults who are developmentally disabled, as many as 83 percent of females and 32 percent of males are the victims of sexual assault. (Johnson & Sigler, 2000)
  • In one study, 40 percent of women with physical disabilities reported being sexually assaulted. (Young, Nosek, Howland, Chanpong, Rintala, 1997)

Reporting Sexual Assault

On average, from 1992 to 2000, only 31 percent of all rapes and sexual victimizations were reported to the police. (Hart, Timothy and Rennison, 2003)

References

Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Bopp, P.J. (2003). University of Hawaii/Manoa Student Survey on Violence. Unpublished

Boyer, D. and D. Fine. (1992). Sexual abuse as a factor in adolescent pregnancy and child maltreatment. Family Planning Perspectives 24:4-10.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adverse Childhood Experiences Reported by Adults. MMWR 2010; 59: [pg 1611)

Desai, S., I. Arias, M. Thompson, and K. Basile. (2002). Childhood victimization and subsequent adult revictimization assessed in a nationally representative sample of women and men. Violence and Victims, Vol. 17 (6): 639-653.

Finkelhor, D. (1987). The sexual abuse of children: Current research reviewed. Psychiatric Annals 17: 233-241.

Fisher, BS., FT Cullen, MG Turner. The sexual victimization of college women. Washington: Department of Justice (US), National Institute of Justice; 2000. Publication No. NCJ 182369.

Greenfeld, L.A. (1997). Sex offenses and Offenders (Publication No. NCJ 163392). Washington, DC: US. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics

Greenfeld, L.A. (1998). Alcohol and Crime (Publication No. NCJ 168632). Washington, DC: US. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Hart, T. & Rennison, C. (2003, March). Reporting Crime to the Police, 1992-2000. Washington, DC: US. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Johnson, I. & Sigler, R. (2000). Forced Sexual Intercourse Among Intimates. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(1).

Noll, J., Horowitz, L., Bonano, G., Trickett, P., & Putnam, F. (2003). Revitalization and self-harm in females who experienced childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(12), 1452-1471.

Paone, D., Chavkin, W., Willets, I., Friedman, P., & Des Jarlais, D. (1992). The impact of sexual abuse: Implications for drug treatment. Journal of Women’s Health, 1, 149-153.

Rennison, C.M. (2000, August). Criminal Victimization 1999: Changes 1998-00 with Trends 1993-99. Washington, DC: US. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Ruggiero, K.J. & Kilpatrick, D.G. (2003). Rape in Hawaii: A Report to the State. Charleston, SC: National Violence Against Women Prevention Center, Medical University of South Carolina.

Schafran, L.H. (1996). Rape in America. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1), 15-19.

Seymour, A., Kilpatrick, D., Edmunds, C. (1992). Rape In America: A Report to the Nation. Arlington, VA: National Center for Victims of Crime.

Silverman, J., Raj, A., Mucci, L., & Hathaway, J. (2001). Dating Violence Against Adolescent Girls and Associated Substance Use, Unhealthy Weight Control, Sexual Risk Behavior, Pregnancy, and Suicidality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(5), 572-579.

Snyder, H. (2000). Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics. Washington, DC: US. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Sobsey, D., (1994). Violence and Abuse in the Lives of People with Disabilities: The End of Silent Acceptance. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co., Inc.

United States Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2000). National Crime Victimization Survey, Criminal Victimization 1999, Changes 1998-1999 with Trends 1993-1999 (Publication No. NCJ 182734). Washington, DC: US. Department of Justice.

United States Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2003). National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington, DC: US. Department of Justice.

United States Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2004). National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington, DC: US. Department of Justice.

Young, M. E., Nosek, M.A., Howland, C.A., Chanpong, G., & Rintala, D.H. (1997). Prevalence of Abuse of Women with Physical Disabilities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Special Issue, 78(12, Suppl. 5), s34-s38.

Zierler, S., Feingold, L., Laufer, D., Velentgas, P., Kantorwitz-Gordon, I., & Mayer, K. (1991). Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent risk of HIV infection. American Journal of Public Health, 81(5), 572-575.